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Types of Management

Management takes on different roles in every organization, and these include interpersonal roles, informational roles, and decisional roles.  Essentially, management is deemed as the process of getting tasks done efficiently by getting the help of other people. While it may seem like a simple role to fulfill, being a manager is actually quite challenging considering that people have different personalities, attitudes, and beliefs. Anyone can be a manager but not all managers are effective, which is why it is imperative that you learn everything you can about managing people so that you will know what to do when placed in a managerial position.

A familiarization of the different types of management is going to help you become a good manager. Knowing what they are can help you determine which type or style would suit you best, based on your own skills, personality, and abilities, as well as other factors such as the kind of people you will be handling and the work environment you belong to. At the moment, there are already a handful of management styles that can easily get a newbie manager confused. To help you, we will discuss only the most widely used types of management in this article and hopefully, you will be able to pick one or two styles that you can use.

Basic Functions of a Manager

Before we go ahead and tackle the various management styles, you must first get to know the basic functions of a manager. Keep in mind, however, that the extent of a manager’s scope would depend on which level he belongs to—lower, middle, or upper management. Functions remain the same but the scope varies depending on designation.

A manager’s roles include:

  • Planning
  • Staffing
  • Organizing
  • Reporting
  • Budgeting
  • Coordinating
  • Directing

Common Types of Management

  • Autocratic Management
  • Paternalistic Management
  • Democratic Management
  • Laissez-faire Management
  • Management by Walking Around

Autocratic Management

This style of management gives the manager full authority to run a department or group, and make all the decisions. With Autocratic Management, expect that majority of the decisions made are based on the manager’s opinions, ideas, knowledge, and personality. Using this management style can be both good and bad for the company. While it allows for quicker decision-making and implementation of any plan or strategy, it can also lead to employee resentment, which will eventually bring down people’s morale.

Studies show that companies adopting the autocratic style of management have one of the highest turnover rates, especially if those taking on management roles are not really ready to use this management style. It may work for some organizations but definitely not for the majority.

Paternalistic Management

This type of management is, in some ways, similar to Autocratic Management in the sense that all decisions come from only one person. However, it can be differentiated from the other because with Paternalistic Management, subordinates are given utmost priority. It can be likened to a father taking care of his child. He may have the final say on all matters but he always has their best interest in mind. The main problem with Paternalistic Management is that employees become too dependent on their managers and they are no longer able to use their ideas and creativity to get things done.

Democratic Management

Democratic Management is one of the most preferred types of management because it allows for a two-way communication between managers and their subordinates. Very much unlike Autocratic and Paternalistic Management styles, you can expect a more extensive and open communication on both sides, which in turn, will result to better job performance and increased productivity.

With Democratic Management, employees’ voices are heard and they are given the opportunity to introduce their ideas and opinions on the table, when the need arises. However, just like all types of management styles, it is also has its share of disadvantages. For one, it makes decision-making slower because it will take a long time before people will reach a consensus during discussions and meetings. But all things considered, Democratic Management is considered one of the most effective types of management today.

Laissez-faire Management

‘Unconventional’ is the term that can best describe Laissez-faire Management but surprisingly, it is quite effective in bringing out the best in people. With this management style, the manager can empower his subordinates and give them the freedom to carry out their tasks, as they deem fit.

Laissez-faire Management also has its share of drawbacks. For one, it relieves the manager of his duties, which can eventually lead to a lack of coordination and delegation. If not handled correctly, employees will be unable to focus and will lose their sense of purpose and direction.

Management by Walking Around

The principle behind Management by Walking Around is that employees will become more productive and motivated to work, if they feel that they are valued and understood by the company that they work for. This is why, with this style of management, managers are tasked to “walk around” and talk to their subordinates on a regular basis. Their objective is to listen to employees’ concerns and suggestions, and to foster good working relationships with them.

So as long as this management style is done properly, it will be very effective in helping a company achieve its goals. However, if carried out by an untrained manager, it could very well pose problems especially when he becomes overly critical of employees and scold them outright if they’ve done something wrong.

There are other types of management being utilized by companies and organizations today. These include: Management by Objectives, Seagull Management, Management by Observation, Management by Intercourse, Management by Consensus, and many others. Some managers use only one type of management style while others use a combination of two or more styles. But it has been said that because there are always different types of people and different circumstances, it is best to choose the appropriate type of management based on the current needs of the company, department, or team.